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Gene Expression 

Gene expression is the process by which information from a gene is used in the synthesis of a functional gene product. These products are often proteins, but in non-protein-coding genes such as transfer RNA or small nuclear RNA genes, the product is a functional RNA.

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Image by National Cancer Institute

mRNA Gene Expression

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Gene expression profiling measures mRNA levels, showing the pattern of genes expressed by a cell at the transcription level [4]. This often means measuring relative mRNA amounts in two or more experimental conditions, then assessing which conditions resulted in specific genes being expressed.

miRNA Gene Expression 

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The miRNA functions as a guide by base-pairing with target mRNA to negatively regulate its expression. The level of complementarity between the guide and mRNA target determines which silencing mechanism will be employed; cleavage of target messenger RNA (mRNA) with subsequent degradation or translation inhibition